Endometriosis

Endometriosis

The high prevalence of endometriosis in women deserves to be tackled by a specialised unit made up of specialists in diagnosis and treatment. This chronic disease can cause pain and difficulty in getting pregnant. Our department carries out an individualised diagnosis, guaranteeing the best quality care and comprehensive attention to the patient.

What is endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a benign but chronic disease, the causes of which are currently unknown. It is characterised by the abnormal growth of endometrial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the uterus, in other locations outside the uterine cavity. It can appear in a woman’s ovaries and cause a type of cyst called endometriomas, and can also be located in the fallopian tubes. This results in decreased ovarian reserve, altered menstrual cycles and immune impairment that adversely affects embryo implantation in the uterus.

Can endometriosis be diagnosed?

It is a disease that becomes progressively more complicated with age, which is why it is very important to detect it at an early fertile age. The diagnosis of endometriosis is suspected by the symptoms presented by the patient: chronic pelvic pain, pain with menstruation, urinary and/or bowel symptoms, difficulty in getting pregnant; the physical examination and an ultrasound scan showing cystic formation in the ovaries, or with a nuclear magnetic resonance in cases of deep endometriosis and involvement of the rectum.

The cause of infertility is that it affects the ovary, hindering normal follicle development and oocyte maturation; it can even prevent ovulation. When it appears in the uterine tubes, it hinders tubal permeability, making it impossible for the egg to pass through the tube when it is released from the ovary, so that it is neither fertilised nor reaches the uterus.

Another cause is due to alterations in the immune system, which can affect endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation, as the increase in cells that form the autoimmune system causes the sperm and egg to be identified as foreign cells and attacked.

Are there different treatments depending on the type of endometriosis?

If pregnancy does not occur, reproductive techniques are a hope for achieving motherhood. Our specialised unit personalises each treatment according to the degree of endometriosis you suffer from and how it progresses.

  • Artificial insemination. Young patients with grade I and II endometriosis.
  • In vitro fertilisation (IVF). Patients with type III and IV involvement. This is the technique that offers most possibilities, especially if the fallopian tubes are affected.
  • Egg donation. Patients with severe endometriosis, after several failed IVF cycles. There are cases in which access to the ovaries for ovarian puncture is impossible due to multiple adhesions, and others in which the ovarian reserve is very low.
  • Egg vitrification. As it is a progressive disease, women diagnosed with endometriosis are advised to vitrify their eggs as soon as possible if they wish to have children in the future. This will ensure that the quality of the eggs does not diminish and the IVF treatment will be more successful. In addition, it is important to note that ovarian reserve is also affected by endometriosis and early menopause can occur.